R. Bras. Zootec.. 01/Apr/2017;46(4):340-7.
Seasonal variation, method of determination of bovine milk stability, and its relation with physical, chemical, and sanitary characteristics of raw milk
The objective of this research was to determine the variation of milk stability evaluated with ethanol, boiling, and coagulation time tests (CTT) to identify milk components related with stability and verify the correlation between the three methods. Bulk raw milk was collected monthly at 50 dairy farms from January 2007 to October 2009 and physicochemical attributes, somatic cell (SCC), and total bacterial counts (TBC) were determined. Milk samples were classified into low, medium, and high stability to ethanol test when coagulation occurred at 72 °GL, between 74 and 78 °GL, and above 78 °GL, respectively. Univariate analysis was performed considering the effects of year, months, and interaction in a completely randomized design. Principal factor analysis and logistic regression were done. There was an interaction between months and years for stability to the ethanol test and coagulation time. All samples were stable at the boiling test. Boiling test was not related to ethanol and coagulation time tests. Coagulation time was weakly but positively correlated with ethanol test. Broken line analysis revealed that milk stability measured with CTT and ethanol tests decreased sharply when SCC attained 790,000 or 106 cell/mL of milk, respectively. Milk stability measured with ethanol test decreased when TBC was higher than 250,000 cfu/mL, while there was no inflexion point between TBC and stability measured with CTT. Milk with high stability presented lower values for acidity, TBC, and SCC but higher values for pH, lactose, protein, and CTT compared with low-stability milk. Due to the execution easiness, single-point cut-off result and low cost, we do not recommend the replacement of ethanol test for boiling or coagulation time test.