R. Bras. Zootec.18/Apr/2018;47:e20160088.
Genetic diversity assessment of the Mexican Simmental population through pedigree analysis
The purpose of this study was to examine the genetic variability of the Mexican Simmental. Inbreeding was calculated by year for animals born from 1985 to 2014. Proportion of ancestors known, average equivalent complete generations, generation interval, and effective size, as well as the effective numbers of founders, ancestors, and founder genomes were calculated for animals born in six periods (1985-1989, 1990-1994, 1995-1999, 2000-2004, 2005-2009, and 2010-2014). The year 1985 was selected as the initial year to form the subpopulations since the registration of the first Simmental cattle born in Mexico began in this year. Gene contributions of ancestors with the highest genetic influence were also calculated, using data of animals born in the latter period. Coefficients of inbreeding were low, ranging from 0.0068 to 0.0165. The average number of equivalent complete generations increased from 3.71, for the 1985-1989 subpopulation, to 5.83, for the 2010-2014 subpopulation. The population showed an effective population size of 186.6 animals in the last period. The numbers of founders, ancestors, and founder genomes increased from 1985 to 2004, but decreased from 2005 to 2014. The ratio of effective number of ancestors to effective number of founders and the ratio of effective number of founder genomes to effective number of ancestors were 0.31 and 0.66 and 0.27 and 0.63 for animals born in the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods, respectively, revealing loss of diversity due to bottlenecks and genetic drift in the last decade. One ancestor explained 3.4% of the total genetic variability of the progeny born from 2010 to 2014, whereas the first fifteen ancestors explained 20% of such variability. The pedigree analysis showed Mexican Simmental cattle are not currently endangered.